The modern world is feeling proud nowadays that information is easily accessible anywhere and at any time. It is good to listen, but what if this information gets accessed by the wrong hands? That’s why it is crucial to implement information security controls and standards in organizations. Implementing information security controls and procedures is the task of information security professionals. Without proper knowledge of these controls and standards, none of the organizations can achieve confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Why is there a need for digital security? Here we have compiled the list of essential security controls and standards to help the organization implement the security according to their needs. 

Why is there a need for information security controls and standards?

Security controls are the procedures that help in detecting the risk before it could harm the organizations, prevent and minimize. Preventive controls are helping to mitigate the danger before it could occur, locking the unauthorized intruders. Detective controls notify with an alarm or blocking the systems during the malicious event happening. If accidentally something malicious happens to your organization and hackers succeed in their intentions, then there are corrective controls. These corrective security controls also help in retrieving the organization state to the original, which it was before the incident occurred. 

Similarly, there are also security standards that help in evaluating whether the organization has implemented the security procedures and controls accurately or not. The security standards are crucial for any business credibility; if there is an information security standard compliant organization, then people will also see businesses fearlessly. So, information security controls and standards are correlated. Such a standard helps correctly implementing the right controls, and security controls safeguard the organization from any internal or external risk. Let’s explore the different security controls and standards and their need in any organization. 

Security controls 

There are different types of information security controls, helping the information comprised of organizations to strengthen them. Security controls mainly consist of software, security policies, procedures, devices, and also plans. You need an information security manager to deploy the plans, procedures, security policies, software, hardware, and procedures. Here we are going to explain the basic security controls so you could communicate with information security managers and professionals to implement security in the specific area you want. 

Types of security controls 

The types we are going to mention makes evident that there should be different types of controls to strengthen the cybersecurity in any organization. 

Access controls 

The access controls are basically applied to all the physical assets, such as the biometric devices. Not only the physical access machines and devices but also the access controls define the virtual privileges. To determine the roles and to decide which authorized person has access to which extent, all this covered by the access controls knowledge. Access controls are defined on all the physical entrances, devices, and a strong understanding of an information security professional is behind to set these controls. A little mistake can let an intruder into your organization.

Compliance controls 

There are cybersecurity frameworks and privacy laws to lessen the security risks in any organization. Cybersecurity compliant organizations are easier to work. As they have the proper risk assessment, pen-testing tool, and techniques and standards to define whether the organization is security compliant or not. The compliance controls also clear all the information security requirements. 

Procedural controls 

According to many surveys, the organizations faced the bad security attacks were not prepared already to handle that. There is a need for security training and awareness programs to make the organization cybersecurity compliant. The incident response plans and procedures are the strong pillars to pre-build plans for security attacks. These plans comprised of firewalls, DMZ, and robust tools which monitor the incoming traffic. The monitoring of traffic, whether harmful or not, can also saves organizations from security attacks. So, procedural controls help organizations get proper knowledge and procedures by which they can strengthen the cybersecurity. 

Technical controls 

The technical controls are all the tools, software, methods, and controls to strengthen the cybersecurity more. For example, defining the multifactor login authentication, access privileges, timings to access roles and master access, and normal access all these controls defining can be done by utilizing the technical controls. The installation of firewalls and antiviruses and such softwares also defined by considering the technical controls. 

All the controls mentioned above are preventive, corrective, and detective controls to prevent malicious incidents, minimizing the attack, and also helping to gain the organization their assets back after security breach attempt.

Security frameworks and standards 

  1. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology)—–Special Publication 800-53, Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations
  2. ISO (International Organization for Standardization) ISO 27001, Information Security Management
  3. PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard)
  4. HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act )

List of all relevant information security standards being deployed in various organizations 

  1. ISO 27001.
  2. ISO 27002.
  3. COBIT.
  4. NIST SP 800-53.
  5. ISO/IEC 17799
  6. NIST SP 800-55.
  7. NIST SP 800-100.
  8. FISMA
  9. ANSI/ISA-62443.
  10. Council on CyberSecurity Critical Security Controls (CCS CSC, now managed by the Centre for Internet Security).

ISO 27001

ISO 27001 is the only auditable international standard that defines an information security management system (ISMS). An ISMS is a set of policies, procedures, processes, and systems that manage information risks, such as cyber-attacks, hacks, data leaks, or theft.

ISO 27002

The ISO 27002 standard, a collection of information security guidelines intended to help an organization implement, maintain, and also improve its information security management.

Difference between ISO 27001 and ISO 27002

The difference is that the ISO 27001 standard has an organizational focus and details requirements against which an organization’s Information Security Management System (ISMS) can be audited. On the other hand, ISO 27002 are best practices that are not mandatory.

ISO/IEC 17799

This standard establishes guidelines and general principles for initiating, implementing, maintaining, and also improving information security management. 


COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies), a good-practice framework created by international professional association ISACA for information technology (IT) management and also for IT governance.

NIST SP 800-53

This NIST SP 800-53 database represents the security controls and associated assessment procedures defined in NIST SP 800-53Revision 4 Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and also for Organizations.


The Federal Information Systems Act (FISMA) requires government agencies to implement an information security program that effectively manages risk. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is also a non-regulatory agency that has issued specific guidance for complying with FISMA.


IEC 62443: Network and system security for industrial-process measurement and control. 

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