The things around us demand wireless connectivity to reduce human efforts by remotely operating many applications. Have you heard of PAN (personal area networks)?. Zigbee is a family or protocol suite of high-level communication protocols for building a private area network. Some smaller projects such as home automation, digital radios, and medical devices collection need close proximity wireless connection. Zigbee supports low power and data rate wireless Adhoc networks. As compared to other wireless networks and personal area networks such as wifi and Bluetooth, Zigbee is less complicated and cost-effective. But then why are there Problems of isolated nodes in Zigbee for WSNs? Let’s explore problems of isolated nodes in Zigbee for WSNs, to look for a solution for better connectivity.

Random distribution problem

WSNs based on Zigbee protocol automate many wireless sensor devices. While creating the network, random distribution involves and wireless sensor nodes convert to isolated nodes in the network. Let us make you understand this hierarchy, a device can easily communicate following Zigbee if it gets the network address of parent device. There is an assignment scheme of distributed addresses for calculating the address of child devices. Although this scheme is easy to implement, it restricts the depth of the network and limits several child devices. Hence, problems of isolated nodes in Zigbee for WSNs arises. Zigbee specifies the random formation policy, and therefore the utilization of the address pool becomes very low. Because of restricting the child addresses, child devices are unable to receive the network addresses and remain isolated in the network. 

Isolated nodes subcategories 

The isolated nodes in the wireless sensor networks followed by two subproblems. One of the problems is of BDDTF (bounded-degree-and-depth tree formation, in which a number of clusters forms and demand efficiency in cluster scheduling. Only the minimization of cluster scheduling can reduce the number of isolated nodes in the network. The other problem of isolated nodes is EDMM (end-device maximum matching) problem. Perfect pairing may speed up the joining of nodes, but what to do when the n-cubes get complete? 

Continuous trials and depleted energy 

It’s not easy for nodes to connect with each other all the time. Sometimes they have to pass through endless trials or to face the random distribution of addresses. The child devices are unable to get the parent network address on time and wait for a long time. Continuous waiting and trials deplete their energy as there is a huge waiting time in a random distribution of addresses. So depleted energy makes the chid devices to stay isolated in the WSNs. 

Clustering interference 

In large scale wireless sensor networks, the big challenge is energy efficiency. There are also problems of end to end delay and bandwidth. The communication-based energy waste such as idle listening and collision of nodes can be easily solved by following the clustering schedule in wireless sensor networks. But what to do in clustering interference? The interference of clusters also led to a massive number of isolated nodes in the network. Bring energy efficiency demands inter-cluster communication, and due to BDDTF, it is time-consuming and depletes the energy of child devices, leaving them as isolated nodes in the network.

Real-time constraints 

The wireless sensor networks work in the real world environment. It must follow the time constraints to deliver the sensor data to take the actions timely. There are problems in WSNs to meet real-world requirements. Different protocols work by processing fast and ignoring real-time constraints. Some other functions must also collaborate with time constraints of real-time such as security, classification, event detection, and data transmission. Due to the lack of soft real-time requirements, completion problems of lost messages, congestion, and noise arise. The failed messages are also primary reasons of isolated nodes in the wireless sensor networks. As the child energy depletes for not getting the network addresses on time and because of lost messages. So they remain isolated in the networks. 

Solution 

As many problems led to the formation of isolated nodes in the network, so here is the suggested solution. The router carries the least number of end devices, so forming a strategy to join the isolated nodes with the router can help. Only calculating the distance and adding it to the nearest routers can solve the problem of isolated nodes in the WSNs to some extent. 

Nowadays, the world has shifted from wifi to Lifi. Issues and challenges of wireless sensor networks have resolved to a great extent. Infosec analyzes these challenges and works to propose simple solutions. For more updated answers and queries, contact us. 

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